This guide gives the exact steps to install Ubuntu on a USB stick from Windows. With these instructions the USB stick will not have any persistent storage.
The instructions have you destroy any existing data on the USB stick.
1. Go to http://releases.ubuntu.com/16.04.4/
2. Download 64-bit PC (AMD64) desktop image
Note: the file is 1.5 GB
3. Insert your USB stick:
If you get an AutoPlay window, close it by clicking on the 'x':
4. Download Rufus from link.
Note: There's no need to install Rufus. Its just an exe. I saved mine to C:\tools
5. Double click on rufus-2.18.exe to run it
6. Use the following settings and click on the disk icon.
Make sure Device is the USB stick you plugged in. To do this, note the drive letter (D:) Run Windows Explorer by right clicking on Start and clicking Open Windows Explorer.
7. (1) Select the ISO and (2) click Open
8. Click Start
Note: I've selected Check device for bad blocks so that I can make sure the device has no bad blocks before using it. It does take more time to program a USB stick if this is selected.
9. Click OK on the Download required popup
10. Leave Write in ISO Image mode (Recommended) selected and click OK on the ISOHybrid image detected window
11. Click OK on the WARNING: ALL DATA... pop up. It will take a bit since we've selected Check the device for bad blocks.
Note: with Check for bad blocks programming can take time.
11.1. Click on Log to get the log.
Here's the log from my run:
12. Close Rufus.
13. Open Windows Explorer, (1) right-click on the drive and (2) click Eject. Leave the USB stick in.
14. Note how to enter your BIOS or boot from another boot media*, save your work, and reboot your computer (get ready to press F12 when you see the Lenovo screen).
*On the T460 you "Restart the computer. When the Lenovo logo is displayed, press F1 to start the ThinkPad Setup program." (from the T460 User's Guide).
*You can also press F12 to enter the boot menu. The next instructions use this method.
15. At the Lenovo screen press F12.
16. Select USB HDD: SanDisk Cruzer Glide to with the arrow keys and hit Enter.
17. Select Try Ubuntu.
Ubuntu will boot up.
18. When your done, simply power off Ubuntu. Remember, none of your changes will persist.
Specific Hardware and Software Used in this Example